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The first-ever ancient case of Turner syndrome has one X chromosomes instead of 2.

ScienceThe first-ever ancient case of Turner syndrome has one X chromosomes instead of 2.

There is a medieval cemetery in Longwall Quad at Oxford. Turner Syndrome is a genetic condition in which a person has just a single X chromosomes rather than two. An analysis of the bones revealed that the person probably hadn't gone through puberty before they died. The team identified six people with sex chromosomal conditions by looking at historical DNA from skeletons in the U.K. The researchers discovered unusual numbers of chromosomes in the DNA from skeletons.

The remains of a person with Turner syndrome were found during an excavation. The person with Turner syndrome, who died in the early Iron Age, probably had a missing second X chromosomes. Symptoms of this condition can include shorter-than-average height, cardiac defects, and small or absent ovaries, which can lead to fertility issues. Three individuals showed signs of a genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, which is a genetic condition in which a person has an XXY set of sex chromosomes. One died in the Iron Age, one in the high Middle Ages, and one in the early 19th century. A person with Klinefelter syndrome may have lower testosterone levels, less muscle mass, less body hair and larger breast tissue. The burials of the three skeletons identified with this condition were typical for their time, and they did not show any differences in how they were perceived by their peers. XYY syndrome is a condition in which a male from the eighth century had an extra Y sex chromosomes. A male infant from Iron Age Britain was identified as having Down syndrome. The researchers wrote in the study that identifying skeletons with the syndrome can provide insights into care within ancient societies, as well as how people with these conditions are perceived by their peers. The researchers wrote in the study that they were able to observe genetic diversity with the new method because of the small number of people with chromosomal differences. Making it easier to study variations in sex chromosomes in ancient DNA can help move the field of skeletal analysis beyond simple sex estimations to a more complex understanding of social gender. It is difficult to know an ancient individual's conception of their own gender identity, and gender norms in the past may not align with those of the present day.

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